A root canal is a procedure where the nerve and blood supply is removed from the tooth. Root canals are generally done due to a tooth being infected and painful.
A root canal is where the dentist removes the nerve and blood supply to the tooth and then seals that vacant area with a material called gutta percha. Gutta percha is a natural plant generally grown in South America. Each root to your tooth has a canal in which it houses the nerve and blood supply to the tooth. This nerve and blood supply is called the pulp of your tooth. When the pulp becomes infected due to decay or necrosis of the blood supply, the tooth generally becomes painful. This is called irreversible pulpitis where the nerve and blood supply become overly sensitive to pressure, sweets, and temperature. Over time the tooth will develop an abscess at the end of the root which will grow in size as the infection goes untreated. The abscess is infected granulation tissue which destroys your bone around the apex of the tooth. The root canal procedure removes the infected tissue in the canal (infected nerve and blood supply) and seals that area with gutta percha.
This allows the infection or abscess to heal and new bone will heal and fill in where the abscess once was. This healing process for the new bone to fill in takes months but the pain in the tooth goes away within days (depending on the size of the abscess). Both doctors do many of their own root canals and utilize the latest rotary instruments to do root canals. We do a warm gutta percha technique which heats the root canal filling material up so that it flows better into the canals to achieve a better seal.